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The Schengen area is not necessarily the same as the European Union (EU). Not all EU Member States are part of the Schengen area and not all Schengen states are part of the EU. Therefore, if you are travelling to an EU Member State that does not participate in the Schengen Agreement, you are subject to the visa system, entry rules and passport control systems. Ireland is an EU member state, but it is not part of the Schengen area. The new EU Member States bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania are not yet part of the Schengen area, but they will do so in the future. In contrast, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein are examples of members of the Schengen area who are not part of the EU. The visa exemption for Taiwan only applies to Taiwanese passport holders with their identity cards of the numbers on their respective passports. Taiwan issues passports without an identity number to certain persons who are not allowed to stay in Taiwan, including the registration of nationals of countries and certain persons from Hong Kong, Macao and mainland China.   The exemption granted by the European Union, the United Kingdom and Ireland through the visa requirement for Taiwanese passport holders has not changed Taiwan`s non-recognition as a sovereign country by the Member States of the European Union.
This is why Taiwan`s List of Taiwan is listed in Schedule II under the title “Entities and territorial authorities not recognized as states by at least one Member State”, Bulgaria as “China, Taipei” and Romania under the title “Special Administrative Regions of the People`s Republic of China”.   Once you are admitted to the Schengen area, you can generally travel anywhere in the Schengen area without being subject to new formal passport control procedures. If you are travelling between two airports within the Schengen area, it is as if you are taking a domestic flight. The EU has visa facilitation agreements with several countries, which facilitate visa procedures for both EU citizens and nationals of partner countries. Simplified procedures include faster processing times for visas, reduced or no fees, and a reduced list of supporting documents.  These agreements are also linked to readmission agreements allowing the return of irregular residents to the EU.  ETIAS is required of visa-free third-country nationals (Annex II), with the exception of European micro-states (Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City).